Arguments for the existence of God have taken many forms over the centuries. At stake are the answers to the ultimate questions of life: Who are we? Why are we here? Where are we going? And why does it matter anyway? With those questions in mind, I will take the next several posts to overview some of the key traditional arguments for the existence of God.
THE COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT
The Argument from Contingency provides the basis for all cosmological arguments. Formally stated, the argument states that things exist; it is possible for those things to not exist; whatever does not necessarily exist has been caused to exist; there cannot be an infinite regress of causes; therefore, there must be an uncaused cause. One can posit steady-state theory, alternative universes, or an infinite regress of causes as alternatives, but ultimately one comes back to the contingency of all that can be observed in a closed universe.
The Cosmological Argument itself seeks to address the originating cause and the conserving cause of the universe. It can be traced back to Plato, who argued that the existence of motion implies a self-originated motion. Aristotle also believed there was an Unmoved Mover who set the matter in motion. This is the horizontal, or kalamargument, since it discusses the beginning of the universe rather than the nature of its existence. Continue Reading…